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Vocabulary and key words :


air of thrill and enthusiasm

assignment had not been a drudge

particular trait or quality

wish to emulate

crackle of sheets

rapt attention



not have a flair

two tenures

battalion in counter terrorism


arranged for his evacuation


birds chirped

cars honked

abandon his responsibilities

restore the heritage structure

welled up


class rose as one, applauding and cheering

uphold the virtues of peace, tolerance and selflessness


The story is narrated from the third person omniscient point of view.

Students Kabir Mrs. Baruah

Students fidgeted and shifted in their seats, and an air of thrill and enthusiasm prevailed. She addressed an eager class 8 A. All forty hands went up in unison.
A crackle of sheets was heard as students hurriedly arranged their pages of their assignments.
They were eager to speak in front of their class mates. The class listened in rapt attention as one by one the children spoke about actors, sports stars, politicians and so on.

When Kabir got up to speak, his hands shook slightly and beads of perspiration appeared on his forehead. He was not accustomed to facing the entire class and speaking aloud. He knew he did not have a flair for making speeches. However, he had worked hard on his assignments and written from the depth of his heart. His assignments were different from the others. It did not focus on one person, profession or quality.
Clearing his throat he spoke of :
1. Thirty one year old Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan, an NSG Commando who was courageous. Sandeep Unnikrishnan had made up his mind to join the army when he was 8 years old.

She gave them a few seconds to settle down, let us begin our lesson for today. Mrs. Baruah beamed Mrs. Baruah said wonderful, you can speak on a profession someone you like and want to be like, a role model or a mentor or talk on a particular trait or quality you admire.
Mrs. Baruah was looking down; tears welled up in her eyes.
Mrs. Baurah dabbed a handkerchief to her eyes.

Students Kabir Mrs. Baruah

By now, every eye was focused on him. Everyone had been allotted three minutes. (At the end of Kabir’s first minute) Outside birds chirped, cars honked and the younger children enjoyed their recess, but class 8A was oblivious to everything and were all ears listening to Kabir.
Swathi’s eyes were moist.
The class rose as one, applauding and cheering.

He served two tenures with his battalion in counter insurgency and counter terrorism operations. He became part of the NSG in January 2007. On the 27th of November 2008 he died in Mumbai fighting terrorists at the Taj Hotel.
He and his team entered the hotel and engaged the terrorists in a fierce gunfight.
The courageous major chased the terrorists who had escaped to another floor single-handedly.
2. He saved his fellow soldier Gajendra Singh, but was hit by bullets and succumbed to his injuries. Kabir finished his first minute and every eye was focused on him. He used the public announcement system to warn people to escape from a different exit and continued doing so for half an hour risking his own life.
3. He would like to be like Karambir Singh Kang, the noble and loyal General Manager of the Taj Hotel, who did not worry about his family’s own needs and did not abandon his responsibilities to his guests. His wife and children were trapped in a room engulfed by fire.

Students Kabir Mrs. Baruah

The children would become pillars who would uphold the virtues of peace, tolerance and selflessness in India.

Kabir suppressed a sob and continued. Swathi’s eyes were moist.
4. When I grow up I want to be fearless and brave like Anti-Terrorism Squad Chief Hemant Karkare, who was gunned down with his valiant comrades, Ashok Kamte and Vijay Salasker near Cama Hospital. Hemant Karkare was a brave officer who had served in Austria for seven years as an intelligence officer in RAW. Kabir had goose bumps on his arms and Mrs. Baruah was looking down as tears had welled up in her eyes.
5. When I grow up I want to be caring like Mohammed Taufeeq Sheikh, a young boy who ran a tea stall outside the CST Station. He helped transport the injured to St. George Hospital.
6. When I grow up I want to be selfless like Sandra Samuel an Indian nanny who saved the life of two-year old Moshe Holtzberg when Nariman House was attacked.
7. When I grow up I would wish to be like the caretakers of the Kabristans in Mumbai, who displayed their resolve and refused to allow the dead terrorists to be buried there. When Kabir ended his speech the class rose as one applauding and cheering. Mrs. Baruah dabbed her handkerchief to her eyes.

India's Heroes

Name of Hero Profession Quality Location

Thirty one year old Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan

NSG Commando


Mumbai, at Taj Hotel

Vishnu Dattaram Zende

Announcer for 10 years with Mumbai Railways

alert and lucky

CST Platform

Karambir Singh Kang

General Manager of Taj Hotel

noble and loyal

Taj Hotel, Mumbai

Ashok Kamte
Vijay Salasker

Anti terrorism squad
Police Officers
Police Officers

fearless and brave valiant comrades

Near Cama Hospital

Mohammed Taufeeq Sheikh

ran a tea stall outside CST Station


helped transport the injured to St. George Hospital

Sandra Samuel

Indian Nanny


Nariman House

Caretakers of Kabristans



Kabristans, Mumbai

India's Heroes

Time line Class Kabir Mrs. Baruah & Others

At the start of the lesson

Students fidgeted and shifted in their seats, an air of thrill and enthusiasm prevailed, all forty hands went up in unison, and the class listened in rapt attention.

hands shook slightly and beads of perspiration appeared on his forehead, clearing his throat


At the end of one minute after speaking about Sandeep Unnikrishnan

Every eye was focused on him

Outside birds chirped, cars honked and younger children enjoyed their recess.

After speaking about Karambir Singh

Swathi's eyes were moist

suppressed a sob

After speaking about Hemant Karkare

Kabir had goose bumps

Looking down as her eyes had welled up with tears

At the end of his speech

The class rose as one applauding and cheering

Mrs. Baruah dabbed her handkerchief to her eyes.


Important Questions :

What are the themes that are brought out in the story Princess September written by W.S Maugham?

The student needs to expand on these points

i. The importance of freedom and liberty.

ii. The paternalistic approach to issues as opposed to an individual’s choice on a subject.

iii. The natural emotional responses to incarceration and subsequent release.

iv. Whether true animal lovers should keep their pets in captivity.

1: How many times did the King of Siam change the names of his daughters? Why?

Ans : [Night and day, seasons, days of the week, months of the year]

2: What character of the King is brought out by the names he gave his daughters? What effect did this have on his Queen?

Ans : [Methodical mind, patriot (Siamese names, confused)]

3: What worry did the Queen have when she gave birth to Princess September?

Ans : [Another name change]

4: What was the King’s response to the Queens worry? Why did the King’s response make the Queen uneasy? What light does this shed on the relationship between the King and the Queen?

Ans : [Cut off your head/cried bitterly-shows love/ compelled to cut off your head-an authoritarian nature/ distress the King/ not be very nice for her]

5: Why did the Queen stop worrying about her life? How were they named?

Ans : [Had only sons after September/ alphabets/ no anxiety]

6: Why were the characters of the King’s daughters permanently embittered? How did September’s character differ from that of her sisters?

Ans : [Repeated change of names/ older ones more effected/ sweet and charming nature]

7: What habit did the king of Siam have? What did he give away as presents?

Ans : [Gave gifts on his birthday instead of receiving presents/ wedding presents/ loyal addresses/ all his crowns which had gone out of fashion]

8: What gift did the King give his daughters on one of his birthdays? Why?

Ans : [Beautiful green parrots in a beautiful golden cage-expand point/ did not have anything else handy]

9: What could the parrot say?

Ans : [God save the King in Siamese/ Pretty Polly/ in no less than seven oriental languages]

10: Why did Princess September burst into tears? What was the response of the Maids of Honour and the Queen?

Ans : [Her parrot was found dead/ Maids of Honour-comforted her, told the Queen, put Princess September to bed quickly-were superficial and not devoted to the Princess/ Queen – sent the Princess to bed without supper, a strict mother who had to divide her time and attention over many children and other stately affairs]

11: Why did Princess September stop crying?

Ans : [A new little bird arrived- expand point]

12: What topics did the bird’s song dwell on? How did both the Princess and the bird react at the end of the song?

Ans : [Lake in the Kings garden/ below trees/ gold fish/ a very nice song/ gave her a bow/ naturally good manners]

13: What was the offer that the little bird made to the Princess? What was her response?

Ans : [Have me instead of your parrot/ clapped her hands with delight]

14: What action of the bird did Princess September refer to as ‘artistic temperament’? Why?

Ans : [He ate rice out of her hand/ he had his bath in her saucer/ he drank out of it too/ not very polite to drink one’s bath water]

15: How did Princess September introduce the bird to her eight sisters?

16: How did the King and Queen respond when they heard the new bird sing?

Ans :[They were surprised and delighted/ the bird sings much better than the parrots/ I was right to send you to bed without any supper/ I thought you got quite tired of hearing people say God save the King/ the sentiment is admirable/ I do get tired of hearing Pretty Polly]

17: Who did the parrots remind the King of? Why?

Ans : [His councilors/ they said the same thing in seven different ways/ it never means anything no matter how they say it]

18: How did the relationship between Princess September and the bird blossom? Why were the other princesses jealous of her?

Ans : [Singing like a lark- expand point/ singing like a nightingale- expand point]

19: How did her sisters and parrots react to Princess September’s new pet bird?

Ans : [Vexed/ looked very glum/ offered to buy her a lovely green and yellow parrot]

20: What was September’s response to their offer?

Ans : [Thank you for nothing/ I have a pet bird/ sings charming songs]

21: Why did the princesses sniff? How did September react to this? What advice did her sisters give Princess September?

Ans : [Why do you sniff/ Have you all got colds in your head/ ‘You’ll get dreadful wrinkles’/ visit to his father in law / pop him into a cage/ safety first said her sisters ominously]

22: What made Princess September uneasy? Contrast this with -Why the Queen had felt uneasy earlier in the story?

Ans : [Something might have happened to her bird/ hawks and men with snares/ the bird might forget her/ the bird might take a fancy to somebody else]

23: What did the little bird tell September when he returned? Why was this a very unfortunate remark to make?

Ans : [I very nearly didn’t come back tonight/ my father in law was giving a party/ they all wanted me to stay/ but I thought you would be very anxious]

24: How did Princess September trick the bird into captivity?

Ans : [She felt her heart go thump thump against her chest/ she decided to take no more risks/ she took hold of the bird in her hand/ the bird suspected nothing and liked the soft warmth of her little hand/ she carried him over and popped him into the cage]

25: What was the initial response of the bird to being caged? What excuse did Princess September give to justify her decision to place the bird in a cage?

Ans : [Hopped up on the ivory perch/‘What is the joke?’/ Very special cats-expand points/ ‘Perfectly’/ Why did you put me in a cage without saying anything about it?]

26: How did the bird react to his first night in captivity?

Ans : [Ate a very good supper/ began to sing but stopped in the middle of the song]

27: How did the bird react to his first morning in captivity?

Ans : [‘Wake up, wake up’/ I want to have a good fly/ ‘Let me out, let me out’/ tried to slip through the bars of the cage/ beat against the cage door]

28: What did the princesses tell September when they realized that their sister had caged the bird?

Ans : [Very wise to take their advice/ the bird would get used to the cage/ he would forget he had ever been free]

29: How did the little bird respond to his first day in captivity?

Ans : [Stood in a corner of the cage/ never sang all day/ never sang a note]

30: What reasons did the bird give for not singing? How did September try and encourage the bird to sing? What did the bird mean by ‘It’s not the same thing’?

Ans : [I want to see the trees and the lake and the green rice growing in the fields/ she picked up the cage and walked down to the lake around which the willow trees grew/ she stood at the edge of the rice fields/ she told the bird I will take you out every day]

31: Why was Princess September anxious after caging the bird? What advice did her sisters now give her?

Ans : [The bird did not sing/ the bird wouldn’t eat/ ‘You must be firm’/ if he won’t eat he will die/ that would be very ungrateful of him]

32: Why did Princess September give a ‘startled cry’ when she awoke on the second morning of the little bird’s captivity?

Ans : [The little bird lay, at the bottom/ on his side, with his eyes closed in the cage/ he looked as if he were dead]

33: Why did Princess September release the bird?

Ans : [The bird told Princess September I cannot sing unless I’m free/ if I cannot sing I will die/ the Princess told the bird I caged you because I loved you/ I never knew it would kill you-expand point]

34: How did the bird react to his release from captivity?

A Doctor’s Journal Entry for August 6, 1945

Note : The exact words from the poem are highlighted in bold letters.

1: Describe the morning in the poem A Doctor’s Journal Entry.

Ans : [It was a calm, beautiful and warm morning/ the author half clad (partially dressed) gazed (looked) out at the shimmering (Quivering and glistening) leaves and their shadows].

2: How is the word stretched used in the poem?

Ans : [The morning stretched, warm beautiful and calm (the warmth and calm of the morning extended across the city). The Author half clad stretches out to relax his muscles (Sprawling)]

3: Describe what the author was doing on that fateful morning?

Ans : The Doctor lay sprawled out (stretched out/ lie stretched out/lie spread out) in his drawers and undershirt (undergarments). He gazed out at the shimmering leaves and their shadows. He was suddenly startled by a strong flash of light.

4: What startled the Doctor? How did he react? [Alternate question - Describe the way the poem describes the explosion.]

Ans : A strong flash of light followed by another startled the doctor. He saw the old stone lantern brightly lit. The Doctor debated the cause of the flash in his mind. He wondered whether it was magnesium flares (flares-a burst of bright light of unknown origin that can dazzle vision) that usually appear as a burst of bright light.

5: How was the calm of that beautiful fateful morning shattered?

Ans : The Author was startled by a burst of bright light that he thought was a magnesium flare. While he debated the cause of the dazzling bright flash of light, the roof and the walls around him collapsed (disintegrated). Dust swirled around him and there was debris everywhere in the garden. Strangely enough (weird) his drawers and undershirt (undergarments) disappeared. It seemed that the world had collapsed (disintegrated) into timber and debris (wreckage/ rubble/ fragments and pieces).

6: What made the Doctor realize that he was gravely injured? How did he instinctively react? [Alternate question - Describe the physical injuries the narrator suffered.]

Ans : The Author realized that a splinter jutted from his mangled thigh. His right side bled and his cheek was torn. He dislodged and detached a piece of glass that had pierced him. Blood gushed out from an artery in his neck.

7: What emotions did they have to deal with on account of his immediate physical injuries?

Ans : The Doctor was alarmed and called out (shouted) for his wife ‘Where are you, Yecko-san’? He was scared for his life and was panic stricken. Holding her elbow, he reassured his wife that they would be fine and urged her to get out of their ruined house quickly for safety. They stumbled into the street. All the while (all the time) he kept wondering what had brought about (caused) this disaster (what had come to pass).

8: What injuries did his wife sustain?

Ans : His wife Yecko-san emerged pale, blood stain and frightened. The Doctor held his wife’s elbow, told her that they would be fine and quickly led her onto the street. She was not as gravely injured as her husband and had to go on ahead towards the hospital leaving her husband behind.

9: What emotions are brought out in this poem? [Alternate question - What emotions did the Doctor, his wife and the others injured have to deal with? Describe the emotional agony brought out in the poem?]

Ans : [Alarmed/ wondering/ scared/ panic stricken/ frightened/ gasped out/ afraid/ dawned on us/ should help my staff too/ thirst seized me/ I felt no shame/ this thought disturbed me/ soldier standing silently/rebelled/in our distress/ what choice had we /she did not wish to/ dreadful loneliness/ my mind ran at a high speed/ shuffled in a blank parade/ dismayed/ marred with suffering/ silence was common/ no cries of anguish]

10: Describe the physical agony brought in the poem.

Ans : A splintered jutted from my mangle thigh/ my right side bled/ my right cheek was torn/ dislodged, detached a piece of glass/ stumbling to the street/ pale blood stain and frightened/ tripped/ gate had crushed him/ breath was short/ thirst seized me/ my strength seemed to revive/ I was still naked/ my legs stiff with dried blood, rebelled/ my body crept behind/ the friction of their burns caused so much pain/ they feared to chafe flesh against flesh again/ marred with suffering.

11: What sentences reveal that the Doctor was in a state of shock and was constantly processing all the information that he obtained from what he saw?

Ans : While I debated it/ all the time wondering what had come to pass/ it dawned on us we must Get to a hospital, we needed aid/ my mind ran at a high speed but my body crept behind/ it took some time for me to understand/ and now the thought arouse that some strange thing had stripped us of our clothes.

12: What did the narrator trip over? [2] How does he react? [1] What does this tell us about his character? [1] What else substantiates this nature in the character of the Doctor?

Ans : The narrator led his wife quickly out of their house on to the street. As they stumbled on to the street making their way through the collapsed timber and debris, they fell, tripped by something below their feet. The Doctor gasped out when he realized that they had tripped over someone’s head. He apologized by saying ‘Excuse me, please excuse me’ but soon realized that the man was dead. A gate had crushed him. This tells us that the Doctor was a caring and polite individual. The fact that he calls for his wife, holds her by her elbow and reassures her that they would be fine is further proof of his caring nature. The Doctor wishes to help his hospital staff treat the injured though he is hurt which further substantiates the fact that he is a kind and caring individual.

13: What two initial observations on the street alert us to the extent of the destruction? What was their reaction?

Ans : The Doctor and his wife tripped over a head as they stumbled on to the street. He quickly realized that the man was dead as a gate had crushed him. They were both frightened. A house stood before the couple on the street. It tilted, swayed, toppled and crashed. Fire sprang up as the house collapsed and the dust [fine debris] was spread by the wind.

14: What realization did they come to at this point (Collapse of the house)?

Ans : It dawned on the Doctor and his wife that they should get to a hospital as quickly as possible. They realized that they were both gravely injured and needed aid. The Doctor also wanted to help his staff treat the injured though he realized he was badly injured (hurt as I was) and was not in a position to help them (to do much good).

15: What physical challenges does the Doctor face at this point (Collapse of the house)?

Ans : At first his legs give way and the Doctor sat on the ground. Shortly after thirst seized him (he felt extremely thirsty) but could not find any water. He was short of breath but slowly (bit by bit) regained (revived) his strength. After sometime he finally (at length) got up.

16: What thought now disturbed the Doctor?

Ans : The Doctor was physically drained (exhausted) on account of his injuries and rested for a while on the ground. He finally got up but realized that he was still naked. He felt no shame though this thought disturbed him a bit (somewhat).

17: How did the soldier help the Doctor?

Ans : The Doctor came upon (encountered) a soldier who was standing silently. The soldier gave a towel that was around his neck to the Doctor to cover his nakedness.

18: What critical decision did the couple take after receiving help from the soldier?

Ans : The Doctor’s legs were stiff with dried blood. They (the legs) refused (rebelled) to carry him any further. The Doctor was more gravely injured than his wife. At this point the Doctor tells his wife Yecko-san that she must carry on and head towards the hospital (she must go on ahead). She did not wish to leave the Doctor behind but had no choice given their state of distress and on account of the need for urgent medical aid and attention. After she left (gone) him, the Doctor was overcome with a dreadful loneliness. This figure of speech is a personification.

19: Which sentence in the poem tells us that the Doctor was mentally alert but physically weak?

Ans : My mind ran at a high speed, but my body crept behind. The Doctor’s body was weak, exhausted and his legs failed him yet his mind was agile and was constantly processing information from what he saw.

20: What observation of the narrator tells us that the event was catastrophic?

Ans : The Doctor saw ‘the shadowy forms of people’ who shuffled (to drag along slowly, confused and in disarray, changing order) in blank (shocked, stunned, overwhelmed, and speechless/ dumb founded) parade (procession in a formal group or line) towards the hospital. Some of them were like ghosts, some scare crows, all wordless and dumb. They walked with arms stretched straight out, shoulder to dangling hand. The friction of their burns caused them much (tremendous/ unbearable) pain. The words shadowy forms, like ghosts and scare crows, all convey a sense of intense physical mutilation and disfigurement. The words shuffled/ blank parade/ wordless and dumb all convey a sense of shock, bewilderment and being over whelmed.

21: What sentences in the poem tell us that everyone were in a state of shock?

Ans : Refer answer 11 for the reactions of the Doctor and his wife. [Additional points for the others - soldier standing silently/ shadowy forms of people/ shuffled in blank parade/ all were wordless, dumb/ were ghosts, some scare crows/arm stretched out/ but she made no sound/ silence was common to all/ no cries of anguish, or a single word]

22: How many times does the topic of a hospital come up in the story? List out the references to the hospital. What does this convey?

Ans : The topic about the hospital is brought out twice in the poem. The hospital is the focus of every ones attention. This tells us that a catastrophic event had occurred and every one required medical aid. It dawned on the Doctor that he and his wife must get to a hospital as they needed aid because they were badly injured. People in large numbers wordless and dumb founded all moved towards the hospital. It conveys a sense of desperation, despair, suffering, and helplessness.

23: What scenes make the Doctor finally realize that something strange had happened? How did he react to each scene?

Ans : The Doctor initially sees a large number of burnt people, wordless and dumb founded making their way in blank parade towards the hospital. It takes him a while (took some time) to understand that the friction of their burns caused them much pain. He next sees a women and child in his path. Both were naked. He is dismayed by what he sees. At first he thinks they are naked because they have returned from a bath. He then comes across a naked man and now realizes that something strange has stripped all of them of their clothes. He finally sees the face of an old woman on the ground that was marred (blighted) with suffering. Yet she made no sound. Silence was common to all of them and there were no cries of anguish despite the pain and grievous nature of the injuries that they had suffered conveying a sense of deep psychological shock.

24: State the theme of the poem. [For the students to answer]

Ans : The horror of war and mass destruction caused by an atom bomb/ nuclear war and its effects on humanity/ anti-war theme/ the horrors suffered by humanity from weapons of mass destruction/ the physical, emotional, and psychological trauma suffered by the victims of Hiroshima/ the need for the U.S to apologise for its actions in Hiroshima/ the futility of war/ the ego clash between nations.

In The Bazaars of Hyderabad Sarojini Naidu

Note : The exact words from the poem are highlighted in bold letters.

This poem has been approached in tabular format for easy learning :

Profession/trade Action Products Sense

Merchants [tradesmen]


Your wares [vendible’s/commodities/ articles/ products] are richly displayed (a wide array of items nicely displayed).
The merchants throng the market with their innumerable wares.
i. Turbans (head dress by which many professions and religions wear distinguished from one another, by the shape and colour of the Turban) of crimson (deep red) and silver.
ii. Tunics (is a piece of clothing often with no sleeves that fits loosely over a person’s body with a belt) of purple brocade (rich heavy fabric with raised design)
iii. Mirrors with panels of amber.
iv. Daggers with handles of jade.

Visual senses - rich display of products. The items that have lively distinct colours like crimson and silver for turbans, purple brocade for tunics, panels of amber for mirrors, and handles of jade (an exquisite green stone of ornamental value).

Vendors [marketer]


The poet asks the vendors 'What they are weighing?' The vendors weigh saffron, lentil and rice

Weight is Palpable (touch) and denotes the sense of touch.



The poet asks the maidens 'What they are grinding?' They reply that they grind sandal wood, henna and spice.

Sandal wood (sweet fragrance) Spices (sense of taste, distinct flavour and aroma)

Pedlars [Travelling Hawker]


The poet asks the pedlars ‘What do you call?’ They reply that their trade cry advertises/ promotes :
i. Chessmen (8 pieces and 8 pawns used by each player in a game of chess) and
ii. Ivory dice (white pearly hard substance from elephant tusks used to make decorative objects)

These items (dice and Chessmen) need to be carved requiring intricate skills. Ivory is a valued product.



Goldsmiths possess intricate skills to make :
i. Wristlets, anklets and rings.
ii. Bells for the feet of blue pigeons that are as delicate as the wings of a dragon fly.
iii. Girdles (corset/ waistband) of gold for dancers.
iv. Scabbards (Sheath for ceremonial swords used by royalty) of gold for the King.

Artisans have nimble dexterous hands and possess intricate skills.

Fruit men


They cry out the names of the fruits they are selling. These include citron, pomegranate, and plum.

These fruits have distinct taste and colours.
Plums - come in a panorama of colours and are sweet tasting.
Lemon – has a distinctive Sour taste.
Pomegranate- has a distinct dark red colour.



She asks the musicians 'What they play?' They reply that they are playing the Sitar, Sarangi and Drum.

These musical instruments stimulate the aural senses adding a musical note to the sounds at the bustling market place.



She asks the magicians, 'What they are chanting?' They reply that they are chanting spells for aeons (spells for generations to come/ spells from time immemorial/ spells from the remote ages/ divine spells) to come.

The chanting of spells adds to the hustle and bustle at the market.

Flower girls


She asks the flower girls, 'What they are weaving with tassels of azure (sky blue) and red?' Weaving (to entwine and fabricate)
Tassels (floral decoration fastened together using strings/ a floral pendant or rosette)
The flower girls reply that they are weaving
i. Crowns (floral decoration for a bridegroom’s headgear) for the brow (forehead) of a bridegroom.
ii. Chaplets (an ornamental wreath of flowers) to garland (decorate) his bed (bridegrooms bed)
iii. Sheets of new garnered (freshly plucked) white blossoms to perfume (to provide fresh fragrance for dead bodies) the sleep of the dead.

Azure and red are bright lively colours. Freshly plucked flowers add to the myriad of fragrances and aromas at the market place. The bright lively colours of azure and red for joyous occasions contrast with white for the somber occasion of death.

Question :

1: What emotional moods are stirred by the poem?

Ans : The flower girls make garlands for various occasions associated with sorrow and joy. Sorrow, sadness are witnessed at death and on other occasions like marriage there is celebration and joy.

2: What do the merchants sell?

3: What do the vendors weigh?

4: What do the maidens grind?

5: What do the pedlars do?

6: What do the goldsmiths make?

7: What do the fruit men cry?

8: What do the musicians play?

9: What do the magicians chant?

10: What do the flower girls weave?

11: How does the poem tickle the sense of taste?

12: How does the poem stimulate our visual senses?

13: How are olfactory (smell) senses stimulated at the bazaar?

14: How are kinesthetic (tactile) skills (sense of touch) brought out in this poem?